Nutrition and diabetes – glucose Control guidelines. A good diet is an indispensable tool for the good control of diabetes. A diabetic’s diet should be focused on helping him normalize his blood glucose levels. Take note of the foods to include and avoid.
A good diet is one of the indispensable tools for the control of a disease such as diabetes. The ideal diet for the diabetic patient is one that fits the needs, tastes, level of physical activity and lifestyle of each.
The recommendations of the diet for a diabetic patient do not differ from the diet for the general population, except in the need to distribute the intake of carbohydrates throughout the day and in the number of shots.
It is recommended that the patient understand his diet and the principles on which it is based, so that he is able to design his own menus and make important decisions regarding his diet. When the professional designs a diet, the diabetic patient can and should do it freely planned, once he has received the appropriate guidelines. In this way you will be able to exchange some foods daily for others to make the menu appropriate to your possibilities.
The basic objectives that a diabetes diet must meet are:
- Be nutritionally complete (balanced diet).
- Maintain or bring the weight closer to the ideal.
- Contribute to normalize blood glucose levels.
- Attenuate cardiovascular irrigation (lipid levels and blood pressure).
- Contribute to improve the course of complications that may arise.
- Adapt to the tastes of patients.
An approach to diabetes
The diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose, causing blood their permanence in higher amounts than normal. This circumstance alters, as a whole, the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
The two most frequent types of diabetes are: type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms, among others, that may appear are: thirst, increased amount of urine, increased appetite, itching, infections or associated cardiovascular diseases .
To control them, the treatment of diabetes is based on six fundamental pillars:
- Food plan
- Physical exercise plan
- General hygiene habits.
- Self-control plan
- Periodic checks
Control blood glucose level
When foods with a high glycemic index are ingested, the blood glucose level is increased very rapidly in the body, as a consequence insulin is secreted in high amounts; The cells cannot burn so much glucose and fat metabolism is activated. This glucose is transformed into fat, which will be stored later in the adipose tissue. The insulin that we had managed to secrete, after two or three hours, used all the glucose and we reached hypoglycemia , feeling the need to eat again.
Therefore, foods containing a low glycemic index will be preferred, and simple sugars are preferred, as far as possible. The consumption of whole grains and fiber-rich foods is recommended .
Maintain an adequate weight
It is advised to select healthy foods and stay physically active, to avoid overweight and obesity.
Balance the nutrient ratio
The optimal ratio in the contribution of nutrients is 65% carbohydrates, 15% protein and 30% fat.
In addition, food must provide an adequate amount of essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, essential fatty acids, and so on. It must be an individualized project to the needs of each person, their preferences and lifestyle.
You have to get an adequate level of blood lipids
Diabetics, due to their metabolism, are one of the main risk groups for cardiovascular diseases . Therefore, try to cook with less fat and limit the consumption of foods that are high in saturated fat, as they increase cholesterol levels.
Try to consume fresh foods and avoid processed foods
It is preferable to consume fresh fruits, cereals or fresh vegetables, than processed foods such as industrial pastries, prepared meals, preserves …
Decrease or eliminate from your diet the amount of high-fat foods such as sausages, butter, salad dressings , pork fat, and so on.
Eat five times a day
The proportions of the meals should be smaller, for this for example you can use smaller plates.
Maintain blood glucose balance, distributing daily food if possible in four or five meals.
It is important to always make the meal at the same time, avoiding skipping meals and following the meal plan as best you can. Chew slowly.
Take care of the kidneys
The kidney is usually an affected organ in diabetics, since it over stresses when there is an absence of insulin, so excess sodium can become dangerous.
Cook with less salt and decrease foods high in sodium.
Limit the intake of foods high in sugars, such as fruit-flavored drinks, carbonated soft drinks, tea or coffee sweetened with sugar … Limit the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Eat foods high in fiber
Among them, cereals, oats, brown rice, etc. stand out. Foods rich in fiber slow down the passage of food through the stomach and intestine, decreasing the absorption of carbohydrates.
Practice physical exercise
The practice of physical exercise is an essential element along with diet and medication. Improvement:
- The sensitivity of insulin.
- The blood pressure figures.
- Weight reduction
- The lipid profile.
- Cardiovascular function
- Sense of well-being.
How to cook to control glucose in diabetes
One of the factors that will affect the glucose levels of the diabetic patient will be the amount of carbohydrates consumed in each intake. Thus, if you consume different amounts every day, the glucose will oscillate. Therefore, one of the main objectives is that the meal plan that is carried out during diabetes focuses on keeping the same amount of carbohydrates in daily meals. Equivalence tables of different food groups are used for this.
The blood glucose figure is considered normal when it is less than 110 mg / dl . We talk about diabetes if:
- Fasting blood glucose in venous plasma is greater than or equal to 126 mg / dL at least twice.
- They presented the symptoms of diabetes and the blood glucose greater than or equal random venous plasma 200 mg / dl; Even if you are not fasting, you would not need a second test.
- Blood glucose in venous plasma two hours after the oral overload test, greater than or equal to 200 mg / dl.
Oral overload is a diagnostic test that consists of administering a 75 g glucose dose in water, with the subsequent blood draw at different times (0 min., 30 min., 60 min., Etc.), thus determining the level of blood glucose.